In the name of the Most Gracious and Most Merciful God
Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-Askari known as Hujjat ibn al-Hassan (Peace be upon him), according to the twelve we Shiite beliefs, is the twelfth and last Imam and the promised Mahdi.
He is the son of Hassan ibn Ali Askari (the eleventh Imam of the Shiites)(Peace be upon him) and, like the Prophet Muhammad, his name is Mohammad and Keniash Abolqasem.
“Sahib Alzaman”, “Vali Asr”, “Qa’im Al-Muhammad” and “Promised Mahdi” are his famous titles. In the current belief in the Shiite of the Twelve Imams, Hojat ibn Hassan was born in Samarra in the middle of Shaban in 255 or 256 AH.
He was imprisoned at the age of five and after the death of his father. After the death of Hasan Askari, Mehdi only contacted the four Shiites through four ambassadors. Historical studies, however, show that the number of lawyers has not been limited to four since the beginning of the period, and the term “special mention” has been created in the fourth and fifth centuries by scholars of Shi’a, such as Sheikh Tusi, to explain the occult absence. After a seventy year (known as Soghri’s absence) and the death of Ali ibn Muhammad Samari, the fourth vicegerent of the 12th Shia Imam, he once again learned the wonder of the Shiites. Finally, in the fifth century, they achieved a rational explanation in the Shiite language of the absence of the Imam.
According to the Shiites, after the time of the Ambassadors, the Shiites are not associated with Mehdi, and they call this period the so-called absenteeism.
After the end of the period of absence, he will rise up as Mahdi, and he will be one in which justice and justice will be regained once more through him.
After the death of Hassan Askari (11th Imam of the Shiites) in 260 AH and at the age of 28, since Hassan Askari, in contrast to other Shi’i imams who had appointed successors in their lifetime, had not publicly left a succession for himself, the crisis There was a great intellectual and belief among followers of the Shia Imam.
In this period, called “Years of Awakening,” Shiites were divided into several sects. Some Shiites believed that Hassan Askari had no children or that this child was in the past.
Many Shiites of Imam Ja’far brothers Hassan Askari accepted the groups and noticed the children and descendants of the ninth and 10th Imams of Shiites.
But some Ash’abi (Followers)from Hasan Askari said that “he has a son who has a legitimate succession for Imamate”.
According to those companions, such as Osman bin Saeed, Nayeb and Wasi Hassan Askari, the boy was kept secret because he was afraid to be arrested and murdered by the government.
The view of the group, which at first was the Shia minority’s viewpoint Was, according to the views of all Shiites, became the Imams, which are Shiites of the twelve present Imams.
From the historical point of view, the belief in the twelve Imams and the fact that the twelfth Imam of the same Mahdi was promised gradually evolved among the Shiites. , versus Jassim Hussein, says that according to the evidence of hadiths that the 12th Imam is the same believer Before the death of Hasan Askari in 260 AH.
Been. It seemed that it took some time for this theory to arrive at its ultimate formulation, and then extensive excuses and explanations were presented about it. Shiites, with two hadith and verbal approaches, came up with the theory of absenteeism, Clayni (and 329 AH / 941 CE).
In the Hadiths of the Absence of the Book, the principles that were sufficiently circulated during the period of the ambassadors (so-called Soghra’s Absence) were the subject of absenteeism and its cause.
In particular, N’amani in the book of al-Ghiba explained the theory of absenteeism through the hadiths, and for the first time he used the terms “sane absence” and “absenteeism”.
After him, Ibn Babawayh (.991-992) in the book of Kamal al-Din tried to collect the hadith related to the 12th Imam and his absence.
On the other hand, theologians such as Sheikh Mufid (and 413 AH / 1023 AD). His disciples, especially Seyyed Morteza (1045-1044), developed the theological ideas of Imamate to explain the necessity of the existence of the Imam in conditions of absence.
Believing in the absent Imam, there were numerous blessings to the Shiites under the persecution.
Since the potential imam was less threatened than an imam, tensions fell with Sunni rulers.
The belief in the advent of the absent Imam made expectations replace the constant challenge of the ruling political system.
The absent Imam led to the unification of the Shi’a, which before that, each group, rounded one of the present imams and gathered together.
In addition, the belief in the advent of the absent Imam (as the Mahdi) has helped the Shiites to endure difficult situations and give them hope of a prosperous future
All the Shiites of the world consider the advent of Imam Mahdi (Peace be upon him) very near. Of course, it’s near